Assuan, is a city in the south of Egypt. Since the 1960s, the name commonly refers to the High Dam. Construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the Egyptian Government after 1952 to control floods, provide water for irrigation, and generate hydroelectricity. Before the dams were built, the Nile River flooded every year during late summer. The estimated cost of the built is 1 billion dollars. The dam is 111 metres high, with a crest length of 3,830 metres and a volume of 44,300,000 cubic metres. Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt. Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It became an important center of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Roman & Byzantine Egypt for almost 1000 years. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping. Known as “The Pearl of the Mediterranean”, it has a Mediterranean atmosphere. Its harbour entrance was once marked by the towering Pharos lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) and its Great Library was renowned as the ultimate archive of ancient knowledge.